How Wi-Fi work

What is Wi-Fi and How it works

If you are at a shopping center, library, hotel or an airport, chances are you’ are able to access a wireless network. Nowadays almost everyone uses wireless networking, also called WiFi or 802.11 networking, to connect their computers at home. Wi-Fi is one of the most important technological developments of the modern age. It’s the wireless networking standard that helps us enjoy all the conveniences of modern media and connectivity.

Wi-Fi capable devices can access the internet without the need for restrictive wires. Wi-Fi can operate long or short distance with secured or open options.

Introduction to Wi-Fi

Wi-Fi is the name of a popular wireless networking technology that uses radio waves to provide wireless high-speed Internet and network connections. A common misconception is that the term Wi-Fi is short for “wireless fidelity,” however this is not the case. Wi-Fi is simply a trademarked phrase that means IEEE 802.11x.However, The tech community calls it “Wireless Fidelity”.

The major advantage of WiFi is that it is compatible with almost every operating system, game device, and advanced printer.

Wireless Internet access for cell phones is called Cellular technology (3G,4G)

What is Internet

The internet, sometimes called  “the Net,” is a worldwide system of computer networks – a network of networks in which users at any one computer can, if they have permission, get information from any other computer. In other words “A means of connecting a computer to any other computer anywhere in the world via dedicated routers and servers” Interestingly NOBODY OWNS INTERNET like Wi-Fi

What is Mbps & MBps

Megabits per second (Mbps) is a unit of measurement for bandwidth (speed) on a network. Each megabit is equal to 1 million bits. (1,000,000 Bits).Mbps is the speed of data transfer over the network. One Mbps means the transfer of one million bits per second. A bit (short for binary digit) is the smallest unit of data in a computer. A bit has a single binary value, either 0 or 1. Please remember, MBps is different from Mbps.MBps refer to Bytes but Mbps refer to bits. Each Bite contains eight bits.

How Wi-Fi works

WiFi works on the same principle as other wireless devices – it uses radio frequencies to send signals between devices. The radio frequencies used in walky-talkies, car radios, cell phones are normally in the range of Kilohertz and Megahertz whereas in Wi-Fi they are  Gigahertz. They are either 2.4 GHz or 5GHz in Wi-Fi.

But Microwave uses 2.450Ghz and a faulty one can interfere with WI-Fi.higher frequency allows the signal to carry more data. The 2.4GHz signal is what all 99% of all global WiFi devices are compatible with. This means that computers, smart TV’s, game consoles, tablets and more are all able to connect to the internet via this frequency.

The radio signals are transmitted from antennas and routers. These signals are picked up by Wi-Fi receivers, such as computers and cell phones that are Wi-Fi compatible. Antena radiate signals equally well in all directions. These antennas are called omnidirectional (radiation in all directions).

The router also has a built-in antenna. Radiowaves are emitted from the antenna with a frequency of 2.4Ghz with the speed of light @300,000 km /186,000 miles per second (With this speed, light can circulate around the earth on the equator line, 7 times in one second). These radiowaves are picked by the antenna of the router and again released by the same antenna at the same frequency and normally reachable to 100 feet with the strength of its Mbps. So Antenna releases Radiowaves and these are picked up by antenna of the router. Router releases radiowaves to Wi-Fi compatible devices. Same is in the reverse process.


When a router connects the internet to various devices at home, the router creates a hotspot and create Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN).
WLAN is a typical local network that utilizes radio waves, rather than wires, to transmit data. Today’s computers have WLAN built onboard, which means no additional WiFi card needs to be installed.
VLAN, Virtual Local Area Network, is a virtual LAN that allows a network administrator to set up separate networks by configuring a network device, such as a router, This allows a network administrator to organize and filter data according to corporate policy in a corporate network.
LAN, Local-Area Network, has networking devices or computers in close proximity to each other, capable of communicating, sharing resources and information. Most home and business networks are on a LAN but wired. When on Wi-Fi, it is WLAN.

Non Overlapping Channels 1,6,11

In the 2.4 GHz band, its spread is from 2.401 GHz to 2.473 GHz.This entire spectrum is separated into 11bands of 22 MHZ each. So the range of 72. MHZ is divided into 11 channels, The channel centers are separated by 5 MHz.All 11 channels are squeezed into the 72 MHz available, and these channels overlap each other except for 1,6,11. These are the only non-overlapping channels. Selecting one or more of these channels is an important part of setting up your network correctly. Currently,  wireless routers automatically select the channel on initial setup.

The radio frequency used in Microwave,Wi-Fi,Smart Phones has no effect on health which I have already discussed in Bluetooth tutorial

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